Time-Axis Adjudication

instant replay

Instant replay in professional basketball illustrates the degree to which time-axis manipulation (ie. slow-motion) can distort a gesture and subsequently an adjudication of "intent". What happens as incidental contact through the intermingling of bodies during the course of play at extremely high speeds often appears in extremely slow motion and extremely brief duration of video clip as a deliberate attempt to strike the opponent — as far as the referee ruling is concerned. It is one thing to use instant replay review, in other words, and quite something else to use instant replay in concert with slow-motion capability: in the latter case the manipulation of time in reviewing the video archive thus becomes a manipulation of the juridical-political process.

splitscreen personality




Sport (and its various mediations) perhaps best expresses that "interdimensional" experience of Being-in-the-City within its logic, offering at once in the same "subjectivity" both flâneur (player) and surveillance functions (diagrammatic x's and o's, archival game video).

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NBA Control Center

"Whatever is not captured by resolution is invisible," as Hito Steyerl suggests, but in professional sports at least, decisions of 'truth' are still being made upon this invisibility through instant replay — decisions complicated not only by resolution but also by frame rate and the interstices between 'stills' of a moving game.

Aspects of Curvature


When a sport with pronounced flight trajectories such a basketball is shot for television in 4:3 ratio and then displayed in a stretched 16:9 widescreen format, the paths look very distorted compared to what one is used to seeing in more native televisual or live-viewing contexts. This isn't necessarily true for all curves in the game. Our ability as TV spectators to "adapt" to the "distorted" or "compressed" athletic bodies at play (and their "newly-béziered" contours) is relatively quick and seamless, as is adjusting to the new shape of the three-point arc relative to the rest of the lines which describe the basketball court.

But the flight path of the ball upon being shot — particularly from deeper distances with their longer trajectories — remains stubborn to such perceptual recalibrations by the televiewer. The arc of the shot appears flatter and in turns generates a foreshortening, particularly to the most experienced eyes. The "true" flight of the ball, when seen in the elongated 16:9 widescreen format, continually appears as if it will undershoot the target before ultimately swishing through the net.

Not subject or object, then, but traject and aspect — new relational opportunities for the visually uncanny.


NBA: the ultimate manufactory of plastic.

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a new relationship to the law