From Ritual to Production in Sport

Excerpted from Dunning & Sheard (1979), Barbarians, Gentlemen and Players: A Sociological Study of the Development of Rugby Football:

FOLK GAMES MODERN SPORT
diffuse, informal organization highly specific, formal organization; institutionally differentiated at local, nat'l, int'l levels
traditional rules, simple formal, elaborate written rules
imperceptible "drift" of rules rational-bureaucratic rules and rule changes
variable space, time and number of participants fixed space, time, and number of participants
little role specificity division of labour/role differentiation
no firm division between players and spectators rigid division between player and spectator
local contests central locus of competition national and international contests superimposed on local; monetization of sport

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